How smoking affects fertility in men and women
The possibility of natural conception depends on many factors: your age, lifestyle, hereditary diseases and even on your bad habits such as smoking.
Smoking and female infertility.
According to the results of interesting studies, conducted in Canada, women who smoke have lower fertility. Smoking lowers female fertility by 72%. Women-smokers need in average more than one year to conceive in a natural way, and those who don’t smoke need 3 — 4 months. Women-smokers also have a lower level of fertility after stopping contraceptive measures.
There is a decrease in ovulatory response in women who smoke. Zygote implantation becomes difficult. Some studies have shown that smokers, who took part in IVF-ET (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer) and GIFT (transfer of gametes) programs, had worse results compared with nonsmokers. Smokers produce fewer oocytes — immature egg cells. Pregnancy rate among them is 50% less than among non-smokers. Those smokers, who were able to become pregnant, had an increased risk of miscarriage. The authors of the study conclude that non-smoking women have a greater chance of success in IVF-ET, so they attempt to convince childless couples to stop smoking before taking part in reproduction programs.
Smoking can disrupt menstrual cycle and reduce the duration of childbearing age. Secondary amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) and irregular menstrual cycle are more likely to occur in women who smoke. Smoking toxic effects on the ovaries lead to a lower level of estrogen.
The onset of menopause is 3 years earlier in women-smokers. This is because polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from tobacco start the process of destruction of ovicells. These substances affect special molecule on the surface of your ovicell and activate a gene, which leads to the death of these cells. This process is called apoptosis. Smoking among young women is comparable to the removal of one ovary!
If a woman quits smoking, her chances of natural conception, childbearing and birth of a healthy child increase!
Smoking and male infertility.
In many couples where men smoke conception doesn’t occur due to changes of semen quality. In male-smokers sperm production changes. They have lower rates of sperm motility and androgens secretion. Reduced sperm density and increased abnormal morphology of sperm are also often observed. Smoking causes decreased sexual performance. It adversely affects the condition of vessels, including the vessels of the pelvis. Blood flow to the genitals becomes weaker. Smoking reduces blood pressure in penis, as well as hormonal activity.
Nicotine adversely affects potency. Atherosclerosis, which spreads to the arteries of penis, is frequent among male smokers. This affects the quality of erections, which rapidly decreases with every year of smoking.
High blood pressure because of smoking, combined with smoking itself, has truly murderous action. Smoking has acute effects on the physiology of erectile tissue. Erectile dysfunction develops among those who smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day. This means that each cigarette you smoke reduces your erection. This effect is observed immediately and accumulates over time.
Smoking affects vitamins levels in blood, particularly the level of vitamin C, which is invaluable in male fertility. Smoking brakes processes of cell division, distort the formation of organs, especially in a female fetus. Internal reproductive organs in a female fetus develop incorrectly. This mean if a man smokes, his daughter may have problems with natural conception in future. Smoking provokes male infertility.
Passive Smoking and infertility
Scientists of the United States conducted a survey of more than four thousand women suffering from infertility, and found out that 40% of them were passive smokers in their youth. According to these studies, passive smoking in childhood and adolescence increases the risk of infertility in girls by almost 50%. Passive smoking also increases the probability of miscarriage by 12%. Tobacco smoke contains toxins that affect the reproductive function of women at the genetic level, disrupting their normal hormonal exchange.
According to Brazilian scientists, regular passive smoking leads to early menopause. Take care of your daughters! Do not smoke in their presence.
Thus, nicotine and other toxic substances in tobacco smoke affect both men and women. Smoking doesn’t contribute to the birth of healthy children. It is one of the causes of infertility. Smoking multiplies the number of childless couples.